The Science Behind the Fast Metabolism Diet and References

In my 25 plus years of clinical practice, I have consumed thousands of studies that all agree on one thing: the body, and it's biological functions are nutrient-dependent! Here are some of my favorite scientific resources that back the principles of the Fast Metabolism Diet. 


Abu Shakra, M., D. Buskila, M. Ehrenfeld, K. Conrad, and Y. Shoenfeld. “Cancer and Autoimmunity: Autoimmune and Rheumatic Features in Patients with Malignancies.” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 60, no. 5 (January 2001): 433–41. 

Adiels, M., et al. “Liver, Belly Fat May Identify High Risks of Heart Disease in Obese People.” American Heart Association website posting, July 2011;

Alcock, J., C. C. Maley, and C. A. Aktipis. “Is Eating Behavior Manipulated by the Gastrointestinal Microbiota? Evolutionary Pressures and Potential Mechanisms.” Bioessays 36 (August 2014): 1–10.

Anathaswamy, A. “Fecal Transplant Eases Symptoms of Parkinson’s,” New Scientist 106 (January 19, 2011): S352.

Bell, J. A., M. Kivimaki, and M. Hamer. “Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.” Obesity Reviews 15, no. 6 (June 2014): 504–15;

Bergström, J., and E. Hultman. “Nutrition for Maximal Sports Performance.” Journal of the American Medical Association 9 (1972): 999–1006. 

 Bes-Rastrollo, M., et al. “Prospective Study of Nut Consumption, Long-term Weight Change, and Obesity Risk in Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89, no. 6 (April 2009): 1913–19. 

 Bloom, D. E., et al. The Global Economic Burden of Non-communicable Diseases, A report by the World Economic Forum and the Harvard School of Public Health, September 2011. 

Bostrom, P., et al. “A PGC1-a-dependent Myokine that Drives Brown-fat-like Development of White Fat and Thermogenesis.” Nature 481 (January 2012): 463–68.

 Bovet, P., D. Faeh, G. Madeleine, B. Viswanathan, and F. Paccaud. “Decrease in Blood Triglycerides Associated with the Consumption of Eggs of Hens Fed with Food Supplemented with Fish Oil.” Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases 17, no. 4 (May 2007):  280–87. 

Brookes, L. “Significant New Definitions, Publications, Risks, Benefits: American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Update ATP III Definition of Metabolic Syndrome,” from Hypertension Highlights, a Medscape Cardiology article. 

Brotherhood, J. R. “Nutrition and Sports Performance.” Sports Medicine 1, no. 5 (September 1984): 350–89. 

Bundy, R., A. F. Walker, R. W. Middleton, and J. Booth. “Turmeric Extract May Improve Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptomology in Otherwise Healthy Adults: A Pilot Study.”  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 10, no. 6 (December 2004): 1015–18. 

Burke, L. M. “Caffeine and Sports Performance.”  Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 33, no. 6 (July 2008): 1319–34. 

Burton-Freeman, B.M., et al., “Whole Food versus Supplement: Comparing the Clinical Evidence of Tomato Intake and Lycopene Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors,” Advances in Nutrition 5 (2014): 457-485.

Caforio, A. L. P., et al. “Evidence from Family Studies for Autoimmunity in Dilated Cardiomyopathy.” The Lancet 344, no. 8925 (September 1994): 773–77. 

 Camilleri, M. “Serotonin in the Gastrointestinal Tract.” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 16, no. 1 (February 2010):  53–59. 

Campbell, K. L., et al. “Reduced-Calorie Dietary Weight Loss, Exercise, and Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women: Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 30, no. 10 (July 2012): 2314–26.

Canavan, C., J. West, and T. Card. “The Epidemiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” Clinical Epidemiology 6 (2014): 71–80.

Castro, C., and M. Gourley. “Diagnostic Testing and Interpretation of Tests for Autoimmunity.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 125, no. 2 (January 2010): 238-47. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion.” CDC website posting, July 2015;

Chambers, E. S., M. W. Bridge, and D. A. Jones. “Carbohydrate Sensing in the Human Mouth: Effects on Exercise Performance and Brain Activity.” Journal of Physiology 587, no. 8 (April 2009): 1779–94. 

Coppack, S. W., et al.  “Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Obesity: Lipase Action in vivo Before and After a Mixed Meal.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 41, no. 3 (1992): 264–72.

Corthals, A. P. “Multiple Sclerosis Is Not a Disease of the Immune System.”  Quarterly Review of Biology 86, no. 4 (December 2011): 287–321. 

David, L. A., et al. “Diet Rapidly and Reproducibly Alters the Human Gut Microbiome.”  Nature 505 (January 2014): 559–63.

Endocrine Society. “Studies on Metabolic Adaptation.” Endocrinology 21 (2013).

Esposito, K., and D. Giugliano. “Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Sexual Dysfunction.” International Journal of Impotence Research 17 (May 2005): 391–98. 

Esposito, K., et al. “Effect of Lifestyle Changes on Erectile Dysfunction in Obese Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.”  Journal of the American Medical Association 291, no. 24 (June 2004): 2978–84. 

Felger, J. C., and F. E.  Lotrich. “Inflammatory Cytokines in Depression: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications.” Neuroscience 246 (2013): 199–229.

Fernandez, M. L. “Rethinking Dietary Cholesterol.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 15, no. 2 (March 2012): 117–21.

Ghadirian P., M. Jain, S. Ducic, B. Shatenstein, and R. Morisset. “Nutritional Factors in the Aetiology of Multiple Sclerosis: A Case-control Study in Montreal, Canada.” International Journal of Epidemiology 27, no. 5 (February 1998): 845–52. 

Goldstein, D. S. “Adrenal Responses to Stress.” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 30, no. 8 (2010): 1433–40.

Gonzalez, A., et al. “The Mind-Body-Microbial Continuum.” Dialogues of Clinical Neuroscience 13, no. 1 (2011): 55–62.

“Gut-Brain Connection.” The Sensitive Gut, March 2012.

Hodes, G. E., et al. “Individual Differences in the Peripheral Immune System Promote Resilience versus Susceptibility to Social Stress.” CrossMark: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, no. 45 (November 2014): 16136–41.

Hunter, J. O. “Nutritional Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10, no. 3 (March 1998): 235-7.

Hyman, Mark. “This Gut Condition Affects One in Six People—And Is Entirely Treatable.” blog, posted April 4, 2015;

“Intestinal Cancer and Celiac Disease.” National Foundation for Celiac Awareness website posting,       ;

“Is the Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition a Placebo Effect?” PLOS ONE (October 2014): 

Joseph, C. G., et al. “Association of the Autoimmune Disease Scleroderma with an Immunologic Response to Cancer.” Science 343, no. 6167 (January 2014):  152–57. 

Kaliman, P., et al. “Rapid Changes in Histone Deacetylases and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Expert Meditators.” International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology 40 (February 2014): 96–107. 

Katcher, H. I., et al. “The Effects of a Whole Grain-enriched Hypocaloric Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome 1,2,3.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, no. 1 (January 2008): 79–90. 

Kaya, A., et al. “Autoantibodies in Heart Failure and Cardiac Dysfunction,” Circulation Research  110 (2012): 145–58

Khan, A., M. Safdar, M. M.  Ali Khan, K. N.  Khattak, and R. A.  Anderson.  “Cinnamon Improves Glucose and Lipids of People with Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes Care 26, no. 12 (December 2003): 3215–18. 

Koo, L. C. “The Use of Food to Treat and Prevent Disease in Chinese Culture.” Social Science & Medicine 19, no. 9 (1984): 757–66. 

Kostis, J. B., et al.,“Sexual Dysfunction and Cardiac Risk (the Second Princeton Consensus Conference).”American Journal of Cardiology 96, no.  2 (July 2005): 313–21. 

Landsberg, L., et al. “Obesity-related Hypertension: Pathogenesis, Cardiovascular Risk, and Treatment—A Position Paper of the Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension”.  Obesity 21, no. 1 (January 2013): 8–24. 

Larsen, S., et al. “The Effect of High-intensity Training on Mitochondrial Fat Oxidation in Skeletal Muscle and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 25, no. 1 (February 2015): e59–69.

Li, Y., et al. “Aerobic, Resistance and Combined Exercise Training on Arterial Stiffness in Normotensive and Hypertensive Adults: A Review.” European Journal of Sport Science 15, no. 5 (September 2014): 443-57. 

 Luo, C., et al. “Nut Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and All-cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.”  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100, no. 1 (May 2014): 256–69. 

 Ma, J., et al. “Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults.” Journal of Nutrition 144, no. 8 (August 2014): 1283–90. 

McEwan, B. S. “Physiology and Neurobiology of Stress and Metabolic adaptation: Central Role of the Brain.” Physiological Reviews 87, no. 3 (2007): 873–904.

 McKeown, N. M., et al. “Whole-Grain Intake and Cereal Fiber Are Associated with Lower Abdominal Adiposity in Older Adults.”  Journal of Nutrition 139, no. 10 (October 2009): 1950–55. 

Mercola, Joseph. “Butter Is Back—Processed Foods Are Identified as Real Culprits in Heart Disease.” website, June 2014;

Mercola, Joseph. “How Stress Wreaks Havoc on Your Gut—And What to Do About It.” website, April 2012;

 Mercola, Joseph. “Mounting Evidence Pegs Broccoli as One of Nature’s Most Health-Promoting Foods, Tackling Hypertension, Cancer, and More.” website, September 2012;

 Mizgier, M. L., M. Casas, A. Contreras-Ferrat, P. Llanos, and J. E.  Galgani. “Potential Role of Skeletal Muscle Glucose Metabolism on the Regulation of Insulin Secretion.” Obesity Reviews 15, no. 7 (July 2014): 587–97. 

“Most Common OTC Medications.” website posting, April 2014;

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. “What Is Metabolic Syndrome?” National Institutes of Health website posting, November 2011;

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, & Metabolic Diseases (DEM).                             ,                       ;

Norris, V., G. Molina, and A. T. Gewirtz.   Hypothesis: Bacteria Control Host Appetites.  Journal of Bacteriology 195, no. 3 (February 2013): 411–16. 

Ornish, D., et al.  “Can Lifestyle Changes Reverse Coronary Heart Disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial.” The Lancet 336, no. 8708 (July 1990): 129–33. 

Pesta, D. H., S. S. Angadi, M. Burtscher, and C. K. Roberts. “The Effects of Caffeine, Nicotine, Ethanol, and Tetrahydrocannabinol on Exercise Performance.” Nutrition & Metabolism 10 (2013): 71.

 Post, R. E., A. G. Mainous III, D. E.  King, and K. N.  Simpson. “Dietary Fiber for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 25, no. 1 (February 2012): 16–23.

Rennard, B. O., R. F. Ertl, G. L. Gossman, R. A. Robbins, and S. I. Rennard. “Chicken Soup Inhibits Neutrophil Chemotaxis In Vitro.” CHEST 118, no. 4 (October 2000): 1150–57. 

Ricci, J. A., et al. “Fatigue in the U.S. Workforce: Prevalence and Implications for Lost Productive Work Time.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 49, no. 1 (January 2007): 1–10.

Rodriguez, N. R., N. M. DiMarco, and S. Langley. “Nutrition and Athletic Performance.” Medscape, March 2009;

 Roman, M. J., and J. E.  Salmon. “Cardiovascular Manifestations of Rheumatologic Diseases.”  Circulation 116 (2007): 2346–55. 

Samocha-Bonet, D., et al. “Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese – The 2013 Stock Conference Report.” Obesity Reviews 15, no. 9 (July 2014): 697–708;

Schmidt, K., et al. “Prebiotic Intake Reduces the Waking Cortisol Response and Alters Emotional Bias in Healthy Volunteers.” Psychopharmacology, 232, no. 10 (December 2014): 1793-801.  

Schnoll, R., D. Burshteyn, and J. Cea-Aravena. “Nutrition in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Neglected but Important Aspect.” Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 28, no. 1 (March 2003): 63–75. 

Scholz, A. “Cellulite Can’t Simply Be Rubbed Away! Whey and Aminos as ‘Make-up from the inside.’” German Association for Sports Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements 3 (2004). 

Schwarz, S., C. Knorr, H. Geiger, and P. Flachenecker. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Multiple Sclerosis.” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 14, no. 8 (September 2008): 1113–19. 

Setiawan, E., et al. “Role of Translocator Protein Density, a Marker of Neuroinflammation, in the Brain During Major Depressive Episodes.” JAMA Psychiatry 72, no. 3 (2015): 268–75.

Smith, S. M., and W. W. Vale. “The Role of Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress.” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 8, no. 4 (2006): 383–95.

Suez, J. et al. “Artificial Sweeteners Induce Glucose Intolerance by Altering the Gut Microbiota.” Nature, 514 (October 2014): 181-186. 

Tillisch, K., et al. “Consumption of Fermented Milk Product with Probiotic Modulates Brain Activity.” Gastroenterology 144, no. 7 (2013):1394–401.e4.

 Trafton, A. “Inside the Adult ADHD Brain: Brain Scans Differentiate Adults Who Have Recovered from Childhood ADHD and Those Whose Difficulties Linger.” McGovern Institute for brain research at MIT, website posting, June 2014;

Turnbaugh, P. J., et al. “The Effect of Diet on the Human Gut Microbiome: A Metagenomic Analysis in Humanized Gnotobiotic Mice.” Science Translational Medicine 1, no. 6 (November 2009): 6–14. 

Villegas, R., et al. “Vegetable But Not Fruit Consumption Reduces the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Women.”  Journal of Nutrition 138, no. 3 (Marcy 2008): 574–80. 

Vincent, G., et al. “Changes in Mitochondrial Function and Mitochondria Associated Protein Expression in Response to 2 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training.” Front Physiology 6 (February 24, 2015): 51.

Walker, A. F., R. W. Middleton, and O. Petrowicz. “Artichoke Leaf Extract Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Post-marketing Surveillance Study.” Phytotherapy Research 15, no. 1 (January 2011): 58–61;

 Williams, G., III. “Every Time You Wake Up, Your Body Must Restart Its Engine. Here Are Some Ways To Help Rev It Up.”  American Health Magazine-Washington Post Writers Group, November 1986:

Williams, C. “Is Depression a Kind of Allergic Reaction?” The Guardian, January 2015;

Williams, P. G. “The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base.” Advances in Nutrition 5 (September 2014):  6365–735. 

Wolever, T. M., D. J. Jenkins, L. U. Thompson, G. S. Wong, and R. G. Josse. “Effect of Canning on the Blood Glucose Response to Beans in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” Human Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition 42, no. 2 (1987): 135–140. 

Yancy, Jr, W. S., M. K. Olsen, J. R. Guyton, R. P. Bakst, and E. C. Westman. “A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet to Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Annals of Internal Medicine 140, no. 10 (May 2004): 769-77.

Zajac, A., et al. “The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists.” Nutrients 6, no. 7 (2014)): 2493–508.

Zheng, P., et al. “Identification and Validation of Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder.” Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 12, no. 1  (January 2013): 207-14.

 Zukier, Z, J. A. Solomon, and M. J.  Hamadeh. “The Role of Nutrition in Mental Health: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” Nutrition and ADHD, 2010.